has built a sizable patent portfolio. Currently CSIR holds portfolio (In force Patents) of about 3000
foreign patents and about 1500 Indian patents in the areas of
Bio-informatics, leather, optical fiber, drugs and pharmaceuticals,
biotechnology, nanotechnology, polymers, food products & processes, herbals
and plant varieties.
CSIR has been placed strategically on the world
map by capturing significant share of total US patents granted to Indians.
A glimpse of the most significant
patent portfolios of CSIR have been provided below.
These portfolios have led to the availability of cheaper products
in India, generated secondary and tertiary employment, build the image of CSIR, created visibility to CSIR globally, threatened patentees and
attracted oppositions and creating inventions that are strategically
positioned in competitive and emerging areas. Many of the patents may not be
economically valuable but they are technically important as they resulted in
subsequent development by other inventors.
The patents listed under each
heading below are only illustrative and do not necessarily represent the
complete portfolio of CSIR under that category.
Pharmaceuticals, Drugs and
CSIR patented multistep organic
synthesis in devising shorter and more efficient synthesis route to drugs
and drug intermediates.
Companies such as CIPLA, Ranbaxy,
Reddy Laboratories, Lupin Laboratories, USV and many more have
procured licenses for such patented drugs, giving rise eventually to
the emergence of India as one of the largest players in the drug industry
worldwide. India is now called “the Pharmacy of the World”, supplying
affordable drugs not only to India and other emerging economies but even to
the developed world. The crowning success of this effort was the development
of patented HIV drugs secured by CSIR (beta thymidine for AZT; Zerit, Epivir,
Ziagen), manufactured by CIPLA and delivered to deserving consumers in
Africa at 10% of the price of equivalent drugs supplied by multinationals.
In the 90,s two new drugs were
patented and were introduced in the market namely, Centchroman a new
post-coital antifertlity agent marketed by Hindustan Latex Ltd. under the
trade name of 'Saheliand Gugulipid - ahypolipidaemic agent commercialised by
Cipla Ltd.under the trade name ‘Guglip'. These two drugs even today continue
to be the only new molecules introduced into the Indian market through
discovery research performed in India.
In the late nineties, based on CSIR
systematic exploration of natural products derived molecules having
therapeutic effects and herbal formulations with therapeutic properties, a
host of patents have been secured by CSIR. These include Sallaki (BOSWELLIC
ACID: for the treatment of inflammation and arthritis); Memory PlusMemory
Sure (Bacosides); CIM-Arogya (high yielding variety of plant Artemisia annua)
and its extract Artemisinin; Cytoblastin and Cytocristin ( Anti-Cancer
agents from Vinca).
With the amendment of Indian Patent
Law in 2005 to comply with TRIPS/WTO obligations, CSIR laboratories began
seeking patents in the advanced markets of the world. Eventually
secured patents in the area of chiral Switches, and non-infringing process
routes to API's that led to commercialization and export of single
enantiomer drugs such as (S)-Amlodipine and (S)-Pantaprazole (Emcure) and
In more recent years, CSIR has
patented contemporary technologies for biopharmaceuticals based on
fermentation processes, recombinant techniques and diagnostics tools for
easy point of care as well as diagnosis of diseases. Best example is
streptokinase, a clot specific enzyme which traced its development from a
basic fermentation product to a recombinant version as well as analogs.
has successfully secured a number of patents based on streptokinase
technologies. The value of these findings are reflected in having National (Cadila
Pharmaceuticals, Shasun Drugs & Chemicals Ltd.) and International (Nostrum
Pharmaceuticals, USA) Licensees.
Another example is DNA finger
printing patents which have widespread applications in wildlife
conservation, understanding population migration and diversity, origins of
early Indian settlers, and its use in the legal system to provide evidence
for crime and civil suits involving parentage.
Modern diagnostics for eye and
central nervous system, personalized medicine, computer based method for
identifying peptides useful as drug targets and intracellular drug delivery
systems are also landmark patents that CSIR has secured and strengthen the
position of CSIR in the health sector in modern medicine.
Chemicals, Catalysts and Polymers
CSIR has also secured an extensive
portfolio of patents related to the conversion of natural gas/ methane to
syngas and methane to liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, an area of great
current industrial interest. CSIR patents in this area are highly cited in
patent literature by competitor companies.
In the field of Oil and Gas
production, CSIR IP portfolio includes patents on 'Proppants used in the
process of hydraulic fracturing' to the preparation of flow improvers / pour
point depressants for crude oil transportation which were commercially
produced under the trade name of SWAT. Downstream successes in
petroleum refining include extraction of aromatics from reformed naphtha to
sweetening of petroleum fractions by new generation metal phthalocynanines.
One of the major end products of
petrochemical industry is polymers, which play a pervasive role in our
everyday life. The early patents of CSIR in 50s and 60s were on
preparation of phenolic resins from natural materials like bhilwan nut /
cashew nut shell liquid for different kind of coatings. A number of
CSIR laboratories namely NCL, IICT, CBRI and NIIST have developed a set of
novel modified polymers which emerged as promising raw materials in diverse
fields such as surface coatings, surfactants, insulating resins, and rubber
processing aid, polyurethane and specialty resins. Not only CSIR has
secured patent portfolio in these area but this also led to technology
development by other institutions as well as by industry, leading to
commercial exploitation of a natural resource with a significant economic
Patent has also been secured for
the first indigenous manufacture of ion exchange resins under the name of
Tulsion by Tulsi Fine Chemicals which was later acquired by Thermax Limited
and continue to be in production till date. Early import substitution
successes on synthetic rubbers like Nitrile (CHEMPRENE) and SCPE (ENSAMAR)
led to attention on new chemistry and processes for high performance
Newer synthetic methods such as
solid-state polymerization were used for the preparation of high molecular
weight poly (arylester)s and poly aryl(carbonate)s and poly (arylestercarbonate)s.
This work led to an impressive patent portfolio of about 30 patents, many of
which are well cited. Most of these patents were assigned to GE
Plastics, a world leader in this field of technology. These patents
helped build the image of CSIR and resulted in further collaborative
research work with GE Plastics in the nineties. A number of
co-monomers used for specialty polymers such as THPE and ABTS not only led
to a non-infringing IP portfolio but also commercialisation of these
products that broke the monopoly of certain multinational companies and
brought the prices down in the international market. Other worthwhile
patents worth mentioning are conversion of PET to PBT and Vinyl Acetate
Copolymers -inventions that are strategically positioned in competitive
Other impressive polymer patents
include cement polymer composite coating systems for corrosion protection of
reinforcing and pre- stressing steels and solar selective coating having
higher thermal stability for harnessing solar energy, which are successfully
used in the field.
CSIR acquired a comfortable patent
portfolio in leather researches. Indian leather industry is amongst the top
eight industries in terms of export revenue generation in India, holding 10%
of the global raw material, and 2% of the global trade in volume. The
leather industry occupies a place of prominence in the Indian economy in
view of its massive potential for employment. Contributions of CSIR-CLRI can
claim a rightful share in patenting these technologies.
India ranks second worldwide in
agricultural output. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry,
logging and fishing account for approximately 15% of the GDP, employ - 50%
of the total workforce. Despite a steady decline of its share in the
GDP, agro economy is still the largest economic sector and a significant
piece of the overall socio-economic development of India. CSIR has
secured many patents in this area.
Over 25 agrochemicals and pest
control agents were being patented and transferred to 20 industries.
At present 70% of the Indian pesticide production was based on CSIR knowhow
and patents. CSIR IP portfolio includes processes for pesticide
intermediates like chlorophenols, optically active chrysanthemic acid and
The development of 2HP Swaraj
Tractor to herald the era of farm mechanization for farmers with small and
medium land holdings is a significant lead to secure patents in farm
mechanization. "Swaraj become an integrated component of the Green
Revolution. Swaraj has contemporary design features such as sealed
disc brakes, planetary hi-lo gear arrangement, and aesthetic sheet metal
with zero tooling cost among other features.
In the more recent times, CSIR hassecured patents in other areas of
Agro economy namely development of new plant varieties of mint, disease
resistant varieties of rice and the development of microbes based
Packaged food, easy to make food,
fortified food, ready to eat food, nutraceuticals and foods/beverages with
long shelf life continue to be a vibrant sector of the Indian economy. Both
large (domestic and multinational) as well as MSME sectors cater to this
segment of the economy.
CSIR has over the years, secured
patents for many of these products that have given birth, nurtured and
sustained a large number of industries in the micro, small, and medium scale
The patents belong to the following
dominant fields namely
Machines for mass production of foods
to be deployed in industrial kitchens / restaurants / temples
Increased shelf stability of products
like Dosa / Idli batter, sugar can juice, chapatti
Mechanical gadgets like pulse mills,
Value addition to rice bran oil, black
pepper, coconut oil
One of the important patents in
food technology is the preparation of white pepper from black pepper.
CSIR has secured patent for clean bio-processing of white pepper from fresh
and dried black pepper which opens up great export potential.
Engineering and Structures
One of the highly cited CSIR
patents relates to an improved logic device/memory unit which provides fast
logic implementation based on the magnetic resonance of spin systems. Such a
fast logic device can form the centrepiece of a novel Spin Computer or
Hybrid Spin Computer.
A set of CSIR inventions have
provided a method and an apparatus for online identification of safe
operation and advance detection of unsafe operation of a system. Also, the
set of inventions include a process which is useful, advantageous and which
can be applied in a systematic and rational manner using wavelet transforms
for de-noising with online criteria related to safe process operation. The
method can be used for separating complex composite signals made available
in the form of digitized data and an apparatus which appropriately converts
the monitored signals obtained, from medical diagnostic equipment, molecular
spectroscopy, seismographic analysis, tomography, image cleaning, chemical
reactors/reaction data etc. into its deterministic (true signal) and noisy
components enabling inferences regarding safety in process operation to be
made accurately and quickly. CSIR has successfully secured patents for
the above mentioned technology. These patents have been licensed to a US
has patented an innovative system for transmission of digital time data
corresponding to Indian Standard Time maintained by them. This unique
time series may be accessed not only by a computer but also by an
inexpensive system called TELECLOCK receiver. The new version of the
receiver using mobile network has been recently launched for public use. It
can find extensive use in moving vehicles like police patrolling vehicles,
railways, cars etc. Encouraged by this inexpensive system, some
developing countries like Saudi Arabia and Nepal have introduced similar
service with the help of CSIR-NPL developed equipment.
CSIR-CGCRI has patented a process
for making rare earth doped optical fibers which have shown great potential
for a number of applications including fiber lasers, amplifiers and sensors.
The inventions provide a method of fabricating rare earth doped preforms and
optical fibers by a combination of modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD)
process and solution doping technique as well as by using rare earth coated
silica nanoparticles as precursors.
CSIR-IHBT has patented a
lightweight, portable, compact, low power consuming sterile laminar air flow
cabinet that can be conveniently used in far flung remote areas for 'in
situ' aseptic inoculation of biological samples such as plants and microbes
for establishment of their cultures. These units can be used for
desktop sterile air applications as well as for demonstration and teaching
purposes and can lead to promotion of plant tissue culture as a cottage
Waste Water Treatment Systems
Many of the CSIR laboratories have
patented waste water treatment systems and working with industrial clients
in their respective areas of domain to reduce pollution, recycle waste
streams and reuse reactants / solvents to meet with ever increasing
environmental control norms.